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Ekonomia

Here's when the increase in pensions will take place, the reasons why the government did not issue a decision on indexation on April 1 are clarified, expert Koço Broka gives the last details

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Rightfully according to the law, but also for their needs, the pensioners expected that on April 1 of this year the government would issue the decision on indexation of pensions. But this has not happened so far. Therefore, in these weeks, pensioners have been worried. Everyone asks what happens to pensions? In order to clarify everything that pensioners need to know, but also to shed light on what is happening, the well-known Economy expert, Koço Broka, spoke. He has given Guillotine a clear analysis of the situation, based on the laws.

- Mr. Broka, in April 2023 there was an indexation of pensions, but pensioners say that it is not enough and they demand another indexation soon. In your opinion, when will the next indexing be and are the indexings that are done effective?

I see many headlines in newspapers and on television regarding this aspect in recent months and days. This arouses interest in readers, develops the media market. This is especially so when the pension income for the majority of pensioners is very low. Under these conditions, this encourages the pensioners' need, and it happens that even acquaintances ask me: When will our pensions be indexed?! Of course, neither I nor others who speak and deal with the topic of pensions in the media can know. What I can say is the following. Law "On social security" with Article 61 Indexing of benefits Social pension, old-age, disability, family pensions, as well as income from accidents at work and occupational diseases are indexed every year to compensate for the consequences of changes in the prices of goods and services chosen for the minimum standard of living of pensioners. The Council of Ministers determines the list of selected goods, on which the index is calculated, the method of calculation and the date of indexation. So the law, when dealing with the issue of indexation of pensions, stops not only at the basket of goods on the basis of which the level for the indexation of pensions is calculated, but also for VKM to express the date and date of indexation. So the requirement of the law is the determination of the date of indexation of pensions. Against this clear spirit DECISION No. 131, dated 22.2.2017, in article 3, it is stated "3. The index of the average annual change in prices of goods and services is calculated by the Institute of Statistics and notified to the Social Insurance Institute by February 10 of each year." Meanwhile, we have had the concrete practice of implementing this decision over the years. According to them, it turns out that the indexation of pensions was made on April 1 for the years 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022. In the conditions when the inflation level for the year 2022 was very high, affecting first and foremost the increase in prices of food, clearly affecting the standard of living of pensioners, especially those with low and medium incomes, of course. The Council of Ministers made during that year a second indexation within the year on October 1, but also two bonus packages for pensioners. This indicator continued high for the year 2023 but with a different direction to that of 2022, where in the latter there was an upward trend reaching the highest level in October and then it started to have a downward trend. The bonus for pensioners to compensate for the increased prices, during 2022, was first realized mainly for pensioners with low or single incomes, during the months of April, May, June 2022 and the other of 8 thousand ALL for all pensioners that was given de facto in January 2023, for the year 2022. In fact, the calculations show that the index of the average annual price change of the group of goods and services of the pensioners' basket for the year 2022 was 8.3 percent.Together with the effect of the increase in the number of pensioners of 1.9 percent. Here, the sum of the expenses for these two indexations plus the bonuses, without increasing pensions, completed the index of the average annual change in the prices of goods and services for the year 2022. But this was accompanied by the deepening of the social security deficit.

-Po për vitin 2023 si ishte ndikimi?

Por nuk ndodhi kështu për vitin 2023 i cili u karakterizua përsëri nga një nivel relativisht i lartë i inflacionit në trajtën e Indeksit të ndryshimit mesatar vjetor të çmimeve të grupmallrave e shërbimeve prej 6.7%. Megjithatë në Prill të vitit të kaluar nuk u bë indeksim, por vetëm u dha një bonus prej 5000 lek për çdo pensionist në Maj. Indeksimi u bë vetëm më 1 Tetor 2023, në masën 8.6 %. Por duke u dhënë vetëm për ¼ e vitit masa e indeksimit dhe bonusi i dhënë gjatë vitit 2023, realizon një indeksim vetëm prej 2.4 %. Në kushtet kur sipas Statistika të Sigurimeve Shoqërore 2023, kur numri i pensionistëve u rrit 2.6 %, ndërsa shpenzimet për sigurimet shoqërore gjithsej u rritën 4.6%, kjo do të thotë që përmasat e indeksimit të pensioneve janë bërë vetëm në nivelin e 2.4 % . Pra qeveria, shteti u mbetet borxh për një indeksim ose më saktë qoftë nëpërmjet bonusit  për të kompensuar rritjen e çmimeve të këtij viti duke i rritur pensionet sidomos ato të detyrueshme në nivelin prej 4.3 përqind për vitin 2023. Në këto kushte gjithë pensionistët prisnin që indeksimi i pensioneve të bëhej më 1 Prill 2024 ose presin të behet sa më shpejt. Qeveria duhet të zbatojë kërkesat e nenit 61 të Ligjit Për sigurimet shoqërore. Në këtë rrafsh nuk më mbetet veçse të falënderoj median tuaj për interesimin për pensionistët dhe indeksimin e pensionit të tyre

-Ku ka gabuar qeveria?

Këtu është e nevojshme të bëhet një sqarim VENDIM ‘Nr. 131 I Këshillit të Ministrave , datë 22.2.2017 në nenin 5’ shprehimisht kërkon që indeksimi i pensioneve të bëhet për gjithë grupet e pensioneve dhe jo vetëm për pensionet e ulëta. “5. Çdo vit, si pasojë e ndryshimit të indeksit mesatar vjetor të çmimeve të mallrave dhe shërbimeve, të cilat janë vlerësuar si bazë për nivelin minimal jetik të pensionistëve, të indeksohen”. Më tej jepen të gjithë grupet e pensioneve përfshirë ato të ulëta dhe ato të larta brenda secilit grup. Është çështje tjetër që për pensionet e nivelit mestar e sidomos ato të ulëta kjo rritje defakto rezulton e pamjaftueshme qoftë për kompensimin e çmimeve sidomos të mallrave ushqimore. Por për këtë rast Neni 88 Të drejtat e fituara, i Ligjit Për Sigurimet shoqërore është i qartë në paragrafin Nr 1 të tij ku thuhet “1. Sigurimi shoqëror është jofitimprurës. Me kontributet e derdhura garantohet pagesa në para për të kompensuar pakësimin e të ardhurave në një shumë që mbulon të paktën një standard minimal jetese, i cili përcaktohet nga Këshilli i Ministrave. Kur standardi minimal i jetesës nuk arrihet nga pensioni, për pensionistët me datë fillimi deri më 31.12.2014, Këshilli i Ministrave ka të drejtë të vendosë një shtesë të ardhurash në formë kompensimi të plotë;” Pra fryma e ligjit është tepër e qartë! I mbetet Qeverisë, Këshillit të Ministrave ta zbatojnë atë, si në gërmë dhe në frymë.  Kjo kërkon që përfaqësuesit e pensionistëve, sidomos në Këshillin Administrativ të ISSH, dhe sindikatat e pensionistëve të kërkojnë dhe të mbrojnë me vendimmarrjen e tyre zbatimin e ligjit. Do ishte kënaqësi që të lexoja përgjigjen e pyetjes suaj nga këta përfaqësues.

-Si paraqitet situata në këto muajt e parë të këtij viti?

In order to fulfill what we said above, i.e. the need for an indexing as soon as possible. I would like to present analysis and some information. On Monday (April 8) the data on the consumer price index for March 2024 were published. After the jump suffered by consumer prices, after the start of the invasion of Ukraine by Russia, in March 2022, their growth continued, culminating in October 2022, with an annual change of 8.3%, compared to the first month of the previous year. Then began a decline, to reach an annual change in the month of April 2023 at the level of 4.6% compared to the ninth month of the previous year. But, further this was followed by a slight decline until December 2023, where the annual change in consumer prices resulted in 4%, compared to that of December 2022. However, the decline began to accelerate during the first months of 2024, reaching in March at only 2.3% Characteristic for the first months of 2024, is not only the rapid drop in prices as a whole but especially in the index that has to do with the basket of goods and services that is used to index prices for pensioners. As it appears from the table data from INSTAT source, the annual change of the consumer price index, for the month of January, fell to 3.4%, in February to 2.6% and in March 2024 to 2.3%, compared to the corresponding months of 2023 From the data in the table, it results that the annual change of this indicator has fallen from 4.2% in January, to 2.7% in February to reach 2.27 in March 2024. This is explained by the great decline of the Food group and non-alcoholic beverages, which for March of 2024, compared to that of the previous year, is only 2.0 percent. This analysis shows that we have a drop in prices for basic consumer goods, but it does not justify the need for indexation. On the contrary, the data that we presented from the beginning of the interview until now show that the government should have indexed pensions by applying the law, that is, on April 1.