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An Albanian perspective on America, the state of free people!
Written by Dr. Bledar Kurti 3 Korrik 2022
E pluribus unum (Out of many, one). This is the motto of the Great Seal of the United States. 50 countries in one. A country with over 56 thousand governments. Yes, really, over 56 thousand! With thousands of government units divided into 36 thousand cities and towns, and 35 thousand separate districts! A fascinating reality for any other country, but not for the USA, where diversity and greatness is united in one government, one nation, and one flag! "Out of many, one" is a uniquely American brand! An inter-century reality that is not found anywhere else! Immigrants from all over the world have come and continue to come to the land of freedom and plenty, but despite linguistic, cultural and racial diversity, they are one. They are Americans! They live the American dream and strive to be "good Americans," another concept that belongs only to America. "Out of many, one" is also distinguished in American society, a society that has achieved a remarkable harmony of the relationship between individualism and community. Two opposite binomials that merge perfectly and naturally into one. The individual fully reserves the rights of his or her personal identity and yet is free and responsible in the community, and part of a larger national belonging. "Americans are so fond of equality that they would rather be equal in slavery than unequal in liberty," wrote Alexis de Tocqueville in 1835 in his classic book Democracy in America. Even today, regardless of origin and affiliation, everyone is equal before the law! And every individual is offered the opportunity to be whoever he or she wants to be. Each individual is treated as worthy and valuable to society. The USA is progressive in the implementation of ideas and avant-garde in human rights, gender and equal opportunities, committed to the fight against racism, prejudice and discrimination in every link of the chain of society! The US also has the most unique system of government in the world. The constitution and the system of government were designed precisely to prevent an individual from becoming a king or a tyrant. Just as there are dynamics in American life, so there are dynamics in government. This is evident in the rotation equation of congressmen, senators, electoral colleges and the tenure of Supreme Court justices. The drafters of the Constitution determined that the legislative power, i.e. the Congress, consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each state sends a number of representatives to the House of Representatives according to each state's population. While in the Senate, two representatives from each state, regardless of population size. The goal is to maintain a balance between direct representation and elite leadership. Furthermore, the Constitution provides that elections for the House of Representatives are held every two years, for the President every four years, for the Senate every six years and that the mandate of the judges of the Supreme Court is permanent, in order that the judges are not influenced by political rotations. Thus, the Constitution ensures the circulation of elites and the rotation of power. Even the method of electing senators or the President goes through an even more filtering process of rotation. Article 1, Paragraph 3, of the US Constitution states that: "(The Senate) shall be divided into three categories. The seats of senators of the first category are vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second category at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third category at the expiration of the sixth year, so that a third may be elected every two years .” While the President, with a four-year term, is not elected directly by the people but by a group of representatives from each state, known as the Electoral College. America is a Republic and a Democracy at the same time! This is also a distinctive American value! The political and governing system in the US is balanced and unique. The horizontal separation of power in the United States is completely different from other countries. No other country is as obsessed with the separation of powers as America. In the presidential and parliamentary systems, in terms of the horizontal division of powers, or trias politica, it is the President, the Assembly or the Prime Minister who have more power over the other branches. Even a collegial institution like the Assembly can turn into absolutism since the prime minister and government ministers are elected in the Assembly by a simple majority. A parliamentary government in no other country faces as much difficulty as American presidents in turning their draft proposals into laws. Usually the government presents its legislation directly to the Assembly. It is the government that controls the legislative calendar and agenda. This is completely different in the American system. The legislative agenda is not controlled by the President. Most laws that are passed are largely the product of negotiations between the two houses of Congress, rather than between Congress and the President. This system of balances at every level has made the USA the most transparent, democratic, developed and leading country in the world. What about the Constitution? America's most important export to the world has been its Constitution. It was drafted as the first constitution in a single document. It is the longest-lived document. And over the past two centuries every nation has recognized the need and value of having a constitution. And in cases where countries have drafted their own, the reference has been precisely the American Constitution. There have even been many attempts to import the US Constitution and system of government and apply them to other parts of the world, but they have been unsuccessful. This is due to the fact that the Constitution and the American government system are a reflection of the American mentality, values ??and identity. Many countries, especially those in Latin America, tried to imitate the US government and Constitution, but failed. Bolivia tried it, and as a result suffered sixty revolts, ten rewritten constitutions, and six assassinated presidents between 1826 and 1898. Simon Bolivar (1783-1830), known as the George Washington of South America, died an idealist disillusioned by failure to implement his country's constitution, modeled after the American one. The reason for the failure was nothing but the fact that the American Constitution was drafted for the American people and society, which is based on certain principles. The US Constitution has a series of specific human rights amendments known as the Bill of Rights. The framers and ratifiers of the US Constitution taught the world that there can be no constitution without a separate section listing individual rights. As a Republic built on the rule of law and a consolidated and inspiring democracy, America has served as a beacon of light and hope around the world. Albania, an occupied and oppressed country in history for many centuries, until the fall of the dictatorial regime in 1990, but also during the last three decades of the democratic transition, has always seen America as a symbol of freedom. Albanians, as a liberating people with a Western vocation, are among the most pro-American peoples in the world. They have a special relationship with the United States of America, a relationship that dates back to the founding of the Albanian state. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, The United States was decisive in preserving Albania's sovereignty. US President Woodrow Wilson opposed its separation, therefore he is considered Albania's great friend. Fan Noli, a prominent figure of the Albanian state, praised him as "a name that has won the gratitude of all Albanian hearts", while another important figure, Faik Konica, emphasized that "All Albanians should raise them in their hearts theirs an immortal monument to President Wilson." Albanians suffered for almost half a century under the dictatorship of Enver Hoxha, the most cruel regime in Europe. In 1955 Albania joined the Warsaw Pact, an alliance of communist countries opposed to NATO, but thanks to the support of the USA, in 2009 Albania joined the North Atlantic Treaty, entering a new era and positioning itself alongside Western countries in defense of peace and freedom. There is a large Albanian diaspora in the United States, with major contributions to American society, culture, politics, and entrepreneurship. These talented and hardworking people strengthen the bond between the two peoples even more. It can certainly be said that the "American Dream" has become the dream of Albanians, in their homeland or wherever they live abroad, it is an ideal that has actually inspired all nations! Happy Independence Day America, the city on the hill, the living dream! These talented and hardworking people strengthen the bond between the two peoples even more. It can certainly be said that the "American Dream" has become the dream of Albanians, in their homeland or wherever they live abroad, it is an ideal that has actually inspired all nations! Happy Independence Day America, the city on the hill, the living dream! These talented and hardworking people strengthen the bond between the two peoples even more. It can certainly be said that the "American Dream" has become the dream of Albanians, in their homeland or wherever they live abroad, it is an ideal that has actually inspired all nations! Happy Independence Day America, the city on the hill, the living dream!